Highlights of our Work
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Biological cells are surrounded by a highly versatile, yet very feeble cellular membrane and need to balance differences between the cell's interior and exterior that otherwise would burst the membrane. For example, the osmotic pressures inside and outside the cell need to be closely balanced. Thousands of proteins in the membrane act as gatekeepers, opening pores that can also act as safety valves, helping to reduce the interior-exterior difference in pressure rapidly. One such protein, the mechanosensitive channel of small conductance MscS (see the Mar 2008 highlight, "Observation and Simulation Depict Cell's Safety Valve", the Feb 2007 highlight, "Observing and Modeling a Crucial Membrane Channel", the May 2006 highlight, "Electrical Safety Valve", and the Nov 2004 highlight, "Japanese Lantern Protein") opens in response to cellular membrane tension generated due to a drastic imbalance in osmotic pressure as it arises when a bacterial cell suddenly finds itself in fresh water, rather than a highly saline physiological medium. The MscS channel widens then to jettison molecules out of the cell and reduce tension on the cellular membrane quickly. In a recent report, researchers have combined experimental data from electron paramagnetic measurements and computer modeling to reveal in atomic detail how MscS opens and closes its channel. Combining measurement and modeling, the researchers established a highly resolving computational microscope, unmatched by existing microscopes (more on our MscS website).