Using the CD/DVD Burners
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There are several options maintained by the TCB Group which allow users to create, test and burn ISO images to a CD or DVD.
- tripoli, a Sun Ultra 5 in 3157, attached 12x CD-RW drive + internal 4x DVD-RW drive (Preferred solution)
- 21 Sun W2100z's are equipped with DVD-RW drives
- All Apple G5 systems are equipped with DVD-R drives and all G4 desktops have CD-RW drives. The software used is different from the software used on Sun computers and is not covered in this documentation.
Making the filesystem
To make the appropriate filesystem you can use the program
which is available on several unix platforms in the group, to create an iso9660 filesystem with Rock Ridge attributes. You will need approximately 650MB (CD) or 4.3GB (DVD) of disk space to store the filesystem image which is generated.
The recommended format of the command is:
mkisofs -J -l -R -r -T -V volid -allow-multidot -o filename path
The exact options are explained below. Here is the least you need to know:
- volid is the volume id for the disk you will make. This is the label the disk will have when automatically mounted on some operating systems.
- filename is where the filesystem image will be output. The file may be as large as 650MB (CD) or 4.7GB (DVD), so use scratch space if possible.
- path is the path of the directory tree to be copied onto the CD.
Alternately, you can use the command
, which is a wrapper script for mkisofs that sets most of these options for you. Usage:
/usr/local/bin/mkiso volid filename path
(Note: While both should work in conjunction there had been reports that '-l' and '-T', might not always work together. You may want to experiment for yourself.)
Testing the ISO image
It's important to make sure your ISO image contains the data that you think it should contain before you actually burn it to a disk. This can be accomplished by copying the ISO image to
if you are testing on tripoli or
on Linux boxes. Run
sudo testiso mount
and then check that
contains the files you want to burn to disk. Once you're done, make sure you unmount the image:
sudo testiso unmount
Burning the CD/DVD
First, obtain a CD-R or DVD-R from the sysadmin's office. Then go to the appropriate machine, make sure the burner isn't currently running (red lights should be off) and remove any disk still in the drive from the last user. Without touching either surface of the disk, place it in the previous user's jewel case which should be sitting near the burner. Place your new CD/DVD-R in the burner. Label your jewel case (turn the paper inside out) and leave it on top of the burner. If there was a disk in the burner and the jewel case was labeled, tell that person that you removed the disk on the way back to your office.
- Put in a piece of media (obtain from the sysadmin, or buy them yourself).
- Log into the appropriate machine (if you're not already there).
- Run the appropriate burn commands.
- Copy your file to /tmp
sudo cdrecord-prodvd -v -data /tmp/filename.isofor a DVD or
sudo cdrecord -v -data /tmp/filename.isofor a CD.
sudo cdrecord-prodvd -v -data /path/to/my/filename.isofor a DVD or
sudo cdrecord -v -data /path/to/my/filename.isofor a CD.
- Make sure that nothing else is running on the system while you are burning the disk
- Do not try to put the job into the background. You will get regular updates on the progress of the burn. Your disk is done when cdrecord-prodvd exits.
Note that you may use the same image to create multiple disks. This is a good idea for archival data.
Remove your disk from the burner in short order (i.e., after you get back from lunch is probably fine, after you get back from vacation isn't). Do not touch either surface of the disk with your hands. You will probably want to label the disk itself in addition to the case. DO NOT USE A BALL-POINT PEN! Your data is recorded on the underside of the thin metallic film on top of the disk. Scratching the top surface of the disk will destroy it. Use a permanent, felt-tipped pen like a Sharpie to write your name and label on the disk. Do not use self adhesive labels on the disk either (I'm not sure why exactly, but that's what the warning label on the back of the jewel case says.)
Test your new CD by mounting it somewhere and inspecting the contents. For tripoli, this is done with
sudo /usr/local/sbin/testdvd mount sudo /usr/local/sbin/testdvd unmount(the files are mounted in /mnt/cdrom). You can use "diff -r" to compare to your original directory if you are paranoid (ignore the TRANS.TBL files on the CD-ROM). Don't forget to remove the ISO image when you're done.
Store CD-R's away from heat and humidity.
Mounting your CDs/DVDs later
If you want to read your data back later, load your CD/DVD into an appropriate drive and mount the volume. As a quick reference:
- Suns: generally only have one drive, is automounted at /cdrom. See above for special configuration for the DVD burner machine.
- Linux: generally have two drives, either mounted at
mkisofs option interpretations
mkisofs OPTIONS -o output.file files.path
From the Solaris man page:
-J Generate Joliet directory records in addition to regu- lar iso9660 file names. This is primarily useful when the discs are to be used on Windows-NT or Windows-95 machines. The Joliet filenames are specified in Unicode and each path component can be up to 64 Unicode characters long. Note that Joliet is no standard - CD's that use only Joliet extensions but no standard Rock Ridge extensions may usually only be used on Microsoft Win32 systems. Furthermore, the fact that the filenames are limited to 64 characters and the fact that Joliet uses the UTF-16 coding for Unicode charac- ters causes interoperability problems. -l Allow full 31 character filenames. Normally the ISO9660 filename will be in an 8.3 format which is com- patible with MS-DOS, even though the ISO9660 standard allows filenames of up to 31 characters. If you use this option, the disc may be difficult to use on a MS- DOS system, but this comes in handy on some other sys- tems (such as the Amiga). Use with caution. -R Generate SUSP and RR records using the Rock Ridge pro- tocol to further describe the files on the iso9660 filesystem. -r This is like the -R option, but file ownership and modes are set to more useful values. The uid and gid are set to zero, because they are usually only useful on the author's system, and not useful to the client. All the file read bits are set true, so that files and directories are globally readable on the client. If any execute bit is set for a file, set all of the exe- cute bits, so that executables are globally executable on the client. If any search bit is set for a direc- tory, set all of the search bits, so that directories are globally searchable on the client. All write bits are cleared, because the CD-Rom will be mounted read- only in any case. If any of the special mode bits are set, clear them, because file locks are not useful on a read-only file system, and set-id bits are not desir- able for uid 0 or gid 0. When used on Win32, the execute bit is set on all files. This is a result of the lack of file permissions on Win32 and the Cygwin POSIX emulation layer. See also -uid -gid, -dir-mode, -file-mode and -new-dir-mode. -T Generate a file TRANS.TBL in each directory on the CDROM, which can be used on non-Rock Ridge capable sys- tems to help establish the correct file names. There is also information present in the file that indicates the major and minor numbers for block and character devices, and each symlink has the name of the link file given. -V volid Specifies the volume ID (volume name or label) to be written into the master block. This parameter can also be set in the file .mkisofsrc with VOLI=id. If speci- fied in both places, the command line version is used. Note that if you assign a volume ID, this is the name that will be used as the mount point used by the Solaris volume management system and the name that is assigned to the disc on a Microsoft Win32 or Apple Mac platform. -allow-multidot This options allows more than one dot to appear in iso9660 filenames. A leading dot is not affected by this option, it may be allowed separately using the -L option. This violates the ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on many systems. Use with caution. -o filename is the name of the file to which the iso9660 filesystem image should be written. This can be a disk file, a tape drive, or it can correspond directly to the device name of the optical disc writer. If not specified, stdout is used. Note that the output can also be a block special device for a regular disk drive, in which case the disk partition can be mounted and examined to ensure that the premastering was done correctly.