Research Topics - Mechanobiology

Many cellular processes involve transformations and sustenance of mechanical forces. Forces arise as input, output and signals in cellular machines, such as ATP synthase, motor proteins, and cell surface receptors. Proteins functionally dealing with mechanical forces belong to the research subjects of the emerging new field mechanobiology. Examples among them are the giant muscle protein titin sustaining forces developed in muscle cells, the extracellular matrix fibronectin forming elastic fibrils connecting cells, mechanosensitive channels being switched on by tension applied to the cell membrane, integrins conveying mechanical signals across membrane, ankyrin amplifying weak force signals for the mechanotransduction process in hearing cells, lac repressor grappling with the regulated DNA, Fo-ATPase converting cell's electrical energy into rotation, and various ligand-receptor complexes. What is the physical mechanism underlying the mechanical functions of these proteins? Over the past decade the group has developed and applied a novel computational approach termed steered molecular dynamics to study the structure-function relationship of these mechanical proteins.

integrin and fibronectin complex

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Mammalian cells adhere to each other forming tissues. The adhesion is due to a network of proteins, so-called extracellular matrix proteins, "gluing" the cells together. The cell membranes are too soft to provide anchoring points for the extracellular matrix proteins; rather, the cells furnish on their outer surface specialized hooks for anchoring the extracellular matrix proteins. The hooks, in the form of surface proteins, are linked directly through the membranes to the intracellular cytoskeleton that stabilizes and shapes cells. Integrins are an important family of such surface proteins that form hooks specific for certain types of extracellular matrix proteins. The hooks are flexible, they can be open for contacts or closed, the switch being induced by signals from inside or outside the cell through interactions with other proteins. The interactions between integrins and extracellular matrix proteins are rather complex, as the proteins are composed of many subunits; fortunately, their overall structures are presently being solved through crystallography. In a recent report a major component of an integrin and an extracellular matrix protein have been investigated through molecular modeling using NAMD, including steered molecular dynamics. The study described in detail how the extracellular matrix protein induces a transition in integrin, potentially strengthening its adhesion property. See also previous highlights: the May 2006 "Killer's Entry Route", Dec 2004 "Snap Fastener on Biological Cells", Dec 2003 "Body's Glue", and Mar 2002 "Cells Sense Push and Pull". More on modeling of extracellular matrix proteins and integrins can be found here.

All Spotlights

Papers

Computational investigation of DNA detection using graphene nanopores. Chaitanya Sathe, Xueqing Zou, Jean-Pierre Leburton, and Klaus Schulten. ACS Nano, 5:8842-8851, 2011.

Theoretical and computational investigation of flagellin translocation and bacterial flagellum growth. David E. Tanner, Wen Ma, Zhongzhou Chen, and Klaus Schulten. Biophysical Journal, 100:2548-2556, 2011.

Molecular origin of the hierarchical elasticity of titin: simulation, experiment and theory. Jen Hsin, Johan Strümpfer, Eric H. Lee, and Klaus Schulten. Annual Review of Biophysics, 40:187-203, 2011.

Formation of salt bridges mediates internal dimerization of myosin VI medial tail domain. HyeongJun Kim, Jen Hsin, Yanxin Liu, Paul R. Selvin, and Klaus Schulten. Structure, 18:1443-1449, 2010.

Tertiary and secondary structure elasticity of a six-Ig titin chain. Eric H. Lee, Jen Hsin, Eleonore von Castelmur, Olga Mayans, and Klaus Schulten. Biophysical Journal, 98:1085-1095, 2010.

Molecular basis of fibrin clot elasticity. Bernard Lim, Eric H. Lee, Marcos Sotomayor, and Klaus Schulten. Structure, 16:449-459, 2008.

Secondary and tertiary structure elasticity of titin Z1Z2 and a titin chain model. Eric H. Lee, Jen Hsin, Olga Mayans, and Klaus Schulten. Biophysical Journal, 93:1719-1735, 2007.

Mechanical strength of the titin Z1Z2/telethonin complex. Eric H. Lee, Mu Gao, Nikos Pinotsis, Matthias Wilmanns, and Klaus Schulten. Structure, 14:497-509, 2006.

In search of the hair-cell gating spring: Elastic properties of ankyrin and cadherin repeats. Marcos Sotomayor, David P. Corey, and Klaus Schulten. Structure, 13:669-682, 2005.

Structural insights into how the MIDAS ion stabilizes integrin binding to an RGD peptide under force. David Craig, Mu Gao, Klaus Schulten, and Viola Vogel. Structure, 12:2049-2058, 2004.

Multi-scale method for simulating protein-DNA complexes. Elizabeth Villa, Alexander Balaeff, L. Mahadevan, and Klaus Schulten. Multiscale Modeling and Simulation, 2:527-553, 2004.

Molecular dynamics study of gating in the mechanosensitive channel of small conductance MscS. Marcos Sotomayor and Klaus Schulten. Biophysical Journal, 87:3050-3065, 2004.

Structure and functional significance of mechanically unfolded fibronectin type III1 intermediates. Mu Gao, David Craig, Olivier Lequin, Iain D. Campbell, Viola Vogel, and Klaus Schulten. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 100:14784-14789, 2003.

On the mechanism of ATP hydrolysis in F1-ATPase. Markus Dittrich, Shigehiko Hayashi, and Klaus Schulten. Biophysical Journal, 85:2253-2266, 2003.

Mechanical force generation by G-proteins. Ioan Kosztin, Robijn Bruinsma, Paul O'Lague, and Klaus Schulten. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 99:3575-3580, 2002.

The key event in force-induced unfolding of titin's immunoglobulin domains. Hui Lu and Klaus Schulten. Biophysical Journal, 79:51-65, 2000.

Mechanical unfolding intermediates in titin modules. Piotr E. Marszalek, Hui Lu, Hongbin Li, Mariano Carrion-Vazquez, Andres F. Oberhauser, Klaus Schulten, and Julio M. Fernandez. Nature, 402:100-103, 1999.